The Down Survey of Ireland is the first ever detailed land survey on a national scale anywhere in the world. The survey is a cadastral survey of Ireland and was so called simply by its topographic details all laid down by admeasurements on maps. It was carried out by William Petty an English scientist in 1655 and 1656. The survey sought to measure all the land to be forfeited by the Catholic Irish, in order to facilitate its redistribution to merchant adventurers and English officers and soldiers in Oliver Cromwell’s army. It was to repay them and the many English politicians and adventurers who had funded Cromwell’s military campaign in Ireland.
The Down survey name for the townland of Culliagh More was Clagher in Rosney. In 1670 (post Cromwell) it was in the protestant ownership of John Brown and in the ownership of John Browne a catholic. It is in the half barony of Rosse (sic). There was 42 plantation acres of profitable land and this amount was forfeited.
O’Donovan’s Field Name Books 1838: The standard name for the townland was Culliagh and the Irish form of the name was Coilleach meaning woodland.
Other forms of the name: Culliagh, Coilleach, Culliagh (Boundary Surveyors Sketch Map), Cullaugh (County Cess Collector), Cullaugh (County Map), Cullagh (Leases 1837), Kellagh (Local), Cullagh (Map of Property 1815), Kellagh (Mearsman), Cullagh (Rev. Michael Heraghty P.P.), Cullaugh (Tithe Ledger).
John O’Donovan comments that it was called Culliagh beg and Culliagh mor on plan.
Description: The Provost of Trinity College Dublin was the proprietor and the agent was Alexander Nesbitt, Esq., Junior, 96 Stephens Green, South Dublin. The land was held under different leases; part was held by Mr. William Fair, Fairhill and part by Mr. John Joyce. The soil was all mountainous; some heath and pasturable. One third of this townland was the property of Edward Brown, Esq., of Cooloo near Tuam. Rent of his third was £18 and 121 shillings per year. Rent of the Provosts two thirds was only 8 shillings yearly. County Cess of ……paid yearly for 32 acres (it does not give the amount). The soil is very coarse mountain. The rent is not a good guide. Ultheebegga (sic) is a burial place for children. Two villages are named Culliaghmore and Culliaghbeg.
Situation: Culliagh is a central townland; bounded on the north by the townlands of Glannagevagh and Lettherbrickaun, on the west by Lettherbrickaun and Leanane, to the south by Mountierowen West and on the east by Muntierowen Middle. It is in the barony of Ross and is in County Galway.
According to Griffith’s Valuation Culliagh More (Ordnance Survey Sheet 12), had an area of 649 acres, 1 rood and 1perch. The land value at the time was £17.14.4.
The Provost and Fellows of Trinity College Dublin (T.C.D.) were the immediate lessors of 649 acres, 3 roods and 29 perches of land contained in one plot. It was leased between four tenants; three paid an equal annual sum for their holdings and one paid substantially more for his. One of the tenants leased a house that was on his holding to another tenant.
The Joyce family leased Plot 1 that had the following divisions; (-), (a), (-), (b), (-c).
All rents were paid to T.C.D except for Patrick Malia’s.
(-): John Joyce (big) had a house, offices and land; the land had an annual valuation of £3 and 5 shillings and the buildings were valued at 10 shillings. His total annual rent was £3 and 15 shillings.
(a): John Joyce (little) had a house, offices and land. He too paid an annual sum of £3 and 5 shillings for the land and10 shillings for the buildings. His annual rent was also £3 and 15 shillings.
(-): Thomas Joyce had a house, offices and land. His piece of land had an annual valuation of £3 and 5 shillings and the buildings were valued at 10 shillings. His total annual rent was £3 and 15 shillings.
(b): Tobias Joyce had a house, office and land. The land had a total annual valuation of £5 and 10 shillings and the buildings had an annual valuation of 15 shillings. His total rent was £6 and 5 shillings.
(-c): Patrick Malia (sic) leased a house from John Joyce (big) that had an annual rent of 5 shillings.
Census 1901: There was no census return online for the townland of Culliagh More. (23/10/2019).
Constable Joseph Carlos enumerated the census return for Culloghmore (sic), in the electral district of Letterbreckaun (sic) on the 10th of April 1911. There were four 2nd class dwellings in the townland; three were inhabited, one was vacant, two had perishable roofs that were most likely thatch.
Ten years on, the census was expanded to include the following: Particulars as to Marriage / completed years the present marriage has lasted / children born alive to present marriage and still living.
No 1: James Meehan (41) a general labourer was married to Ellen (40) for four years and they had two children; Louis (3) and infant Mary Ellen (7) months old. Ellen was born in Co. Mayo and the others were born in Co. Galway. James could read and write and was bilingual; Ellen could not read. The house was 2nd class with two windows in front and the parents and children occupied four rooms. They had a cow house on the holding. Thomas E. Joyce was the name of the landholder where the house was situated.
No 2: Tobias Bernard Joyce (54) a farmer and contractor, was married to Bridget (46) for twenty-six years and they had fourteen children; twelve are listed on this census return. John Joseph (21) and James (19) were farmer’s sons; Patrick (17), Bridget (16), Sarah (13), Tobias Richard (11), Peter (10) and Annie Rose (9) were scholars; Charlotte was (7), Edward Paul (6), Monica (4) and Thomas Vincent (2) years old. All were born in County Galway; they could read and write and from age eleven upwards spoke Irish and English, (the young children were not bilingual and this may indicate that English was the language of the home). The house was 2nd class with five windows in front and the family of fourteen occupied six rooms. There was a variety of out offices on the property; two stables, a coach house, a cow house, a calf house, two piggeries, a fowl house, a barn and a turf house.
No 3: Arthur Joyce (60) and his wife Monica (58) were married for twenty-three years and they had a son Thomas Walter (15), who was a scholar. John Joyce (19) was a farm servant and Bridget Joyce (14) a domestic servant. John Joyce could not read; the rest of the household could read and write. Thomas Walter was the only one that was not bilingual. All were born in Co. Galway. Six out offices on the premises contained a stable, a coach house, two cow houses, a piggery and a potato house.
No 4: A house that was listed as uninhabited. There were two cow houses on the property. Thomas E. Joyce was the name of the landholder where the buildings were situated.