Raigh

Raith

Teresa Philbin

Teresa Philbin

Translation:  A fort of earth

 

The Down Survey:  The Down Survey of Ireland is the first ever detailed land survey on a national scale anywhere in the world.  The survey is a cadastral survey of Ireland and was so called simply by its topographic details all laid down by admeasurements on maps.  It was carried out by William Petty an English scientist in 1655 and 1656.   The survey sought to measure all the land to be forfeited by the Catholic Irish, in order to facilitate it’s redistribution to merchant adventurers and English officers and soldiers in Oliver Cromwell’s army. It was to repay them and the many English politicians and adventurers who had funded Cromwell’s military campaign in Ireland.

The Down Survey name was Rinderry and Knockillin in Kilbride.  In 1641 (Pre Cromwell) it was in catholic ownership of Murrogh McBrien O’Flahartye; Edmund McWalter Oge Shoy, Gilleduffe Shoy alias Moyler McRichard and Rickard McRedmond Shoy.  In 1670 (post Cromwell) it was in protestant ownership of College of Dublin.  It is in the half barony of Rosse (sic) in the parish of Rosse and is in County Galway.  There were 94 plantation acres of unprofitable land; 180 acres of profitable land and the profitable land was forfeited.

O’Donovan’s Field Name Books 1838:  John O’Donovan tells us the name for this townland is Raigh and the Irish form of the name Raith means a fort of earth.

Other forms of the name: Raigh, Raith, Roy (Boundary Surveyors Sketch Map), Raugh (County Cess Collector) Roy (Local), Raugh (Meresman), Raigh (Rev Michael Heraghty P.P.), Raigh (Tithe Ledger).

Description:  The proprietor was the Provost of Trinity College Dublin and the agent was Alexander Nesbitt Esq., Junior, No 96 Stephens Green South, Dublin.  The lands were all held under loan by Peter and Patrick Maley of Kilmilkin.  The rent was £18 per year.  The soil was part steep heathy, pasturable mountain; some coarse mixed and heathy mountain, part rocky and some arable.  The county cess of 11¼d was paid per acre, half yearly for 24 acres.  Middling crops of oats were produced but potatoes were bad.  Raigh was a village with one detached house.

Situation:  It is a central townland; bounded on the north by the townlands of Breenaan, west by Maumgownagh and to the south by Cur.  It is in the barony of Ross in Co. Galway.

Translation:  according to P.W. Joyce, Ra, Ray, Raw, Rath is an ancient fortified residence.

Griffith’s Valuation 1849:  Raigh can be found on Ordnance Survey Sheet 25.  According to Griffith’s Valuation it had an area of 358 acres and 8 perches.  The land value at the time was £25 and 5 shillings.  The Provost and Fellows of Trinity College Dublin (T.C.D.) were the immediate lessors of 358 acres, 1 rood and 4 perches of land that was leased between three tenants.  Each paid according to the size and value of their holding.

Plot 1 had two divisions 1(a) and 1(b).  Plot 1(a) had joint occupiers; Peter Malia and Thomas Malia.  Plot 1(b) was held by John King.

1(a):  A herd’s house and land.  The land had a ratable annual valuation of £12 and 10 shillings and the house had an annual valuation of 5 shillings.  Peter Malia paid a total annual rent of £8 and 10 shillings for his share and Thomas Malia paid a total annual rent of €4 and 5 shillings for his.

1(b):  A herd’s house and land.  The land had a ratable annual valuation of £12 and 10 shillings and the house had an annual valuation of 5 shillings.  John King’s total annual rent was £12 and 15 shillings.

All rents were paid to Trinity College Dublin.

1901 Census:  Constable John Phelan collected the census return for Raigh in the electoral district of Curr on the 4th April 1901.  There were seven private dwellings in the townland; two were 2nd class, four 3rd class, and one a 4th class dwelling.  All had perishable roofs that were presumably thatch.  The inhabitants were Roman Catholic and farming was their main occupation.

No 1:  Owen King (61) a farmer, his wife Bridget (50), their two sons and four daughters lived in this house.  John (25) was a boot maker; Thomas (28) a farmer’s son, Bridget (20) and Kate (17) were farmer’s daughters, Maggie (14), Barbara (10) and Julia (6) were scholars.  They were all born in Co. Galway. Bridget could not read and she spoke Irish only. Owen and the older children could read and write. Six year old Julia could read and she spoke English; her father and her siblings were bilingual.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the family of nine occupied three rooms.  There were three out offices; a stable, a cow house and a piggery.

No 2:  James Sarsfield (72) his wife Maggie (50) and their three sons were resident in this house.  James was a farmer; Patrick (15) a farmer’s son, Anthony (13) and Martin (12) were scholars.  Maggie could not read; James and his sons could read and write.  All were bilingual and were born in Co. Galway.  The house was 3rd class with two windows to the front and five people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the property.

No 3:  Patrick Laffey (47), his wife Anne (40) and their eight children lived in this house.  Farming was their occupation.  Mary (17) was a farmer’s daughter, Michael (16); Bridget (12), John (9) and Anne (8) were scholars.  Peter was 7, Kate (5) and Martin 2 years old.  All were born in Co. Galway.  Patrick and Anne could not read; Mary and the scholars could read and write.  The parents and children from age twelve upwards were bilingual and this may indicate that English was the language of the home.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the family of ten occupied three rooms.  The out offices contained a cow house and a piggery.

No 4:  Mary Connelly (39) a widow, was head of this family.  Her son Patrick (19) was a farmer’s son and Bridget (16) a farmer’s daughter; Bab (12), John (9) and Michael (6) were scholars. All were born in Co. Galway. Mary, Bab (sic) and John could read and write; Bridget and Michael could read only; and Patrick could not read.   Mary and her three eldest children were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with two windows to the front and the mother and her five children occupied three rooms.  They had a piggery on the property.

No 5:  Martin Berry (27), his wife Anne (24), his father Michael (81) a widower resided in this house.  Michael Berry and his son Martin were farmers. Patrick Joyce (12), a scholar, was a visitor.  All were born in Co. Galway.  Martin and Patrick could read and write; Michael and Anne could not.  Michael spoke Irish only while the others were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and four people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house on the premises.

No 6:  James King (69), his wife Bridget (60) their two sons and his nephew were the occupants of this house.  Farming was the family occupation.  Thomas (24) and James (17) were farmer’s sons and his nephew James Coyne (6) was a scholar.  All were born in Co. Galway. James and his sons could read and write; his wife and his nephew could not.  The parents and sons spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and five people occupied two rooms.  They had a cow house on the premises.

No 7:  Michael King (42) a single man was an agricultural labourer, and he was born in Co. Galway.  Michael could read and write and was bilingual.  The house was 4th class and Michael had one room.  There were no outbuildings.  James King was the name of the landholder where the house was situated.

1911 Census:  Constable Patrick Henaghan collected the census return on the 7th April 1911.  Seven houses remained in the townland; five 2nd class, one 3rd class and one 4th class dwelling.

Ten years on, the census was expanded to include the following: Particulars as to Marriage / completed years the present marriage has lasted / children born alive to present marriage and children still living.  It reveals that many families experienced the loss of one or more children.  Overcrowding and lack of facilities must have presented huge struggles.

No 1:  Owen King (72) a farmer and his wife Bridget (65) were married for forty-one years and they had twelve children; eight were still living.  Their son Thomas (38) was a farmer and John (36) a boot maker and both were single.  Kate (25) has no occupation listed, Maggie (23) was a school teacher and Julia (16) a scholar.  Bridget was the only family member that could not read; the others could read and write. All the family spoke Irish and English and all were born in Co. Galway.  The house was 3rd class with two windows to the front and seven people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a calf house on the premises.

No 2:  Bridget King (70) a widow had been married for forty and had nine children; seven were still living.  She lived with her son Martin (29) a farmer’s son, and her grandson Michael Coyne (7) a scholar. Bridget and her grandson could not read, Martin could read and write.  Bridget spoke Irish only, Martin and Michael were bilingual and all were born in Co. Galway.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and three people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the property.

No 3:  Michael King (60) a labourer was a single man.  Michael could not read (the previous census states he could read and write).  Michael was born in Co. Galway and he was bilingual.  The house was 4th class with one room and Bridget King was the name of the land holder where the house was situated.  There were no out offices on the holding.

No 4:  Michael Berry (98) was a widower.  His son Martin (40) and his wife Anne (30) were married for eleven years and they had six children; four were still living.  Martin (6) and Thomas (4) were scholars, the infant Michael was 11 months old and the fourth child is not documented.  Michael and Anne could not read; Michael spoke Irish only and Martin could read and write. The parents were bilingual; their children were not, and this may indicate that English was the language of the home.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the family of six occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house on the premises.

No 5:  Patrick Laffey (57) a widower lived in this house with his three sons and three daughters.  John (20) was a farmer’s son, Peter (16) a postman, Kate (14) and Martin (12) were scholars and Delia (23) and Anne (18) have no occupations listed.  Patrick and his son Martin could not read and the others could read and write.  All were bilingual and were born in Co. Galway.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and seven people occupied three rooms.  They had three out offices that contained a cow house, a piggery and a fowl house.

No 6:  Margaret Sarsfield (70), a widow, was married for thirty five years and she had six children; five were still living. Margaret could not read and she spoke Irish only; her son Anthony (25) a farmer’s son could read and write and was bilingual.  Both were born in Co. Galway.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the mother and son occupied three rooms.  They had a stable on the property.

No 7:  Mary Connelly (60) a widow had been married for thirty- five years.  She had six children; five were still living.  Anne (26) and Barbara (20) had no occupations listed.  John (18) was a farmer’s son; Michael (16) a scholar and her niece Julia Joyce (9) was also a scholar.  Mary could not read and she spoke Irish only, the rest of her family could read and write and were bilingual.  All were born in Co. Galway.  The house was 2nd class with three windows to the front and six people occupied three rooms.  They had a stable on the premises.

This page was added on 23/11/2020.

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