Tawnaleen

Tamhan a’ lin

Teresa Philbin

Teresa Philbin

Translation:  Field of flax

 

The Down Survey:  The Down Survey of Ireland is the first ever detailed land survey on a national scale anywhere in the world.  The survey is a cadastral survey of Ireland and was so called simply by its topographic details all laid down by admeasurements on maps.  It was carried out by William Petty an English scientist in 1655 and 1656.   The survey sought to measure all the land to be forfeited by the Catholic Irish, in order to facilitate it’s redistribution to merchant adventurers and English officers and soldiers in Oliver Cromwell’s army. It was to repay them and the many English politicians and adventurers who had funded Cromwell’s military campaign in Ireland.

The Down Survey name of the townland is Tawnalin and Foahagh.  In 1641 (pre Cromwell) the owner was James Oge Darcy a catholic.  In 1670 (post Cromwell) it was in the protestant ownership of College of Dublin.  It is in the half barony of Ross in the parish of Rosse (sic) and is in County Galway.

O’Donovan’s Field Name Books 1838:  John O’Donovan tells us the standard name of this townland is Townalee and the Irish form of the name is Tahan a’lin,that translates as the field of flax.

Other forms of the name:  Tawnaleen, Tamhan a’lin, Townalee (Boundary Surveyor’s Sketch Map), Tavnalee (County Cess Collector), Taunalee (Leases 1837), Thaunalee (Local), Taunalleen (Map of Property 1760), Taunaleen (Map of Property 1815), Thavnalee (Mearsman), Tawnalee (Rev. Michael Heraty P.P.), Tounalee (Tithe Ledger).

Description:  The proprietor was the Provost of Trinity College Dublin (T.C.D.) and the agent was Alexander Nesbitt Esq., Junior, of No. 96 Stephen’s Green South, Dublin.  The rent was £60 per year.  The land; all mountainous with some steep heath pasture, part mixed, some coarse pasture and some arable mountain.  The County Cess of 11¼d was paid half yearly for each of 41 acres.  Middling crops of oats and potatoes are produced.  There are no antiquities.

In County Galway, according to P. W Joyce, Tamhan means a block, a stump or a tree trunk.

Griffith’s Valuation 1849:  Tawnaleen can be found on Ordnance Survey Sheet 12.  According to Griffith’s Valuation it has an area of 1,399 acres and 33 perches.  The land value at the time was £44.15.4.  The Provost and Fellows of Trinity College Dublin (T.C.D) were the proprietors of Plot 1 and Michael Higgins the occupier.  Michael paid an annual rent to T.C. D.

Plot 1:  Michael Higgins was the occupier of this plot.  He had a house and land; the land amount was 805 acres, 1 rood and 8 perches and it had a ratable annual valuation of £21; the house was valued at 8 shillings.  His total annual rent was £21 and 8 shillings.

Plot 2:  Michael Higgins leased another 594 acres, 2 roods and 13 perches of land.  He sublet the land among eleven tenants and they paid rent to him for their respective holdings.

2(a):   John Joyce (Ned) had a house, office and land.  The land had an annual valuation of £2 and 14 shillings and the buildings had an annual valuation of 8 shillings.  His total annual rent was £3 and 2 shillings.

2(b):  Bridget Joyce had a house and land; her portion of land had an annual valuation of £1 and 6 shillings and the house was valued at 4 shillings.  Her total annual rent was £1 and 10 shillings.

2(c):  John Joyce (Stephen) had a house and land; his little portion of land had an annual valuation of £1 and the house had an annual valuation of 4 shillings.  John’s total annual rent was £1 and 4 shillings.

2(d):  Thomas Walsh had a house, office and land.  The land had an annual valuation of £2 and the buildings were valued at 6 shillings.  His total annual rent was £2 and 6 shillings.

2(e):  Thomas Joyce (Bawn) had an office and land; the land had an annual valuation of £5 and 5 shillings and the office was valued at 5 shillings.  Thomas’s total annual rent was £5 and 10 shillings.

2(f):  Thomas Joyce (Bawn) had a house, office and another piece of land.  This piece of land had an annual valuation of £2 and 14 shillings and the buildings had an annual valuation of 10 shillings.  His total annual rent was £3 and 4 shillings.

2(g):  Michael Joyce had a house and land; the land had an annual valuation of £2 and the house was valued at 5 shillings.  His total annual rent was £2 and 5 shillings.

2(h):  Michael Sullivan had a house, office and land.  His portion of land had an annual valuation of £1 and the buildings were valued at 5 shillings.  Michael’s total annual rent was £1 and 5 shillings.

2(i):  Thomas Joyce had a house, office and land.  The land had a ratable annual valuation of £2 and 14 shillings and the buildings had an annual valuation of 6 shillings.  His total annual rent was £3.

2(j):  Martin Joyce had a house, office and land; the land had an annual valuation of £2 and the buildings were valued at 5 shillings.  His total annual rent was £2 and 5 shillings.

2(k):  Patrick Lydon had a house, office and land; his portion of land had an annual valuation of £1 and 12 shillings and the buildings had an annual valuation of 4 shillings.  Patrick’s total annual rent was £1 and 16 shillings.

1901 Census:  Constable Patrick McShane collected the census return for the townland of Tawnaleen on the 10th of April 1901.There were nineteen houses; eight were 2nd class, ten 3rd class and one was a 4th class dwelling; all had perishable roofs that were most likely thatch.  All the inhabitants were Roman Catholic; Laurence Carty was born in Co. Wexford, the others were born in Co. Galway. The people were predominantly Gaelic speakers and many were bilingual.  Page 2 of the Out Offices and Farm Steadings Return (Form B2) gives an indication of what the outbuildings were used for, but it is only available from 1 – 16.

No 1:  Patrick Joyce (60) a farmer, his wife Bridget (58) their son and daughter were the occupants of this house.  Patrick (14) was a farmer’s son and Sarah (13) a farmer’s daughter.  The parents could not read; the children could read and write and all were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with one window to the front and the family of four occupied two rooms.  They had three out offices; a cow house, a piggery and a barn.

No 2:  John Sullivan (60) was a farmer.  His nephew John Sullivan (28) had no occupation listed.  John senior was married; his nephew was single, neither could read or write and both spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and John and his nephew occupied two rooms.  There was a cow house, a piggery and a barn on the premises.

No 3:  Lawrence Carty (50) born in Co. Wexford was a widower and farming was his livelihood. His son Lawrence (22) was a farmer’s son.  Lawrence senior could not read; his son could read and write and both spoke Irish and English.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the father and son occupied three rooms.  The out buildings contained a cow house, a piggery and a barn.

No 4:  Michael Joyce (80) a farmer, his wife Bridget (80) their granddaughters; Julia McNally (15) and Kate McNally (13) were the occupants of this house.   Michael and Bridget could not read; Julia and Kate could read and write and all spoke Irish and English.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and four people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the property.

No 5:  Michael Sullivan (59), his wife Maggie (54) their three daughters and one son lived in this house.  Michael was a farmer; Mary (27) a farmer’s daughter and Patrick (22) a farmer’s son.  Ellen (12) and Kate (10) were scholars.  The parents and Mary could not read; the rest of the family could read and write and all were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with two windows to the front and six people occupied two rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the premises.

No 6:  Michael Joyce (48) and his wife Anne (48) lived here with their seven children.  Farming was their occupation; Michael (19) and John (16) were farmer’s sons, Kate (16) a farmer’s daughter, Bridget (13), Peter (11) and Maggie (8) were scholars and Honor was (5) years old.  Honor was the only one that could not read; her parents and siblings could read and write and all were bilingual.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the family of nine occupied three rooms.  The three out offices contained a cow house, a piggery and a barn.

No 7:  Patrick Joyce (57) a farmer, his wife Kate (48) and their seven children were resident here.  Maggie (22) was a farmer’s daughter; John (16) and Thomas (15) were farmer’s sons, Martin (13), Kate (9), Winifred (7) and Barbara (5) were scholars.  The parents and two youngest children could not read; the others could read and write and all spoke Irish and English.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and family of nine occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a barn on the premises.

No 8:  John Walsh (46) and his wife Maggie (44) were farmers and they had four children; Bridget (15) a farmer’s daughter, Peter (12) a scholar, Catherine (5) and Thomas (3) years old.  John’s mother Mary (82) a widow, and his sister Mary (60) a single woman, were also in the house.  Bridget and Peter were the only members of this household that could read and write; all spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows to the front and eight people occupied two rooms.  They had a cow house on the property.

No 9:  Martin Joyce (60) a farmer and his wife Ellen (55) lived here. Thomas (17) was a farmer’s son and Ellen (13) a farmer’s daughter.  Ellen was the only family member that could read and write; all spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and four people occupied two rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the property.

No 10:  John Joyce (62) a farmer and his wife Mary (63) were the occupants of this house.  John and Mary could not read; both were bilingual.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the couple occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house on the premises.

No 11:  Thomas Joyce (50) and his wife Mary (47) were farmers.  Neither could read; both spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows to the front and the couple had two rooms.  They had a cow house on the property.

No 12:  Ellen Joyce (70) a widow and her son Martin (28) a single man, were farmers.  Ellen and Martin could not read; Ellen spoke Irish only and Martin was bilingual.  The house was 4th class and the mother and son occupied one room.  Two out offices contained a cow house and a piggery.

No 13:  Michael Coyne (55) his wife Margaret (52) their daughters Sarah (21) and Julia (15) were farmers. Michael and Margaret could not read; their daughters could read and write; Michael spoke Irish only, his wife and children were bilingual.  The house was 2nd class with three windows to the front and four people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a barn on the premises.

No 14:  Richard Joyce (58) a farmer, his wife Mary (58), their children; Mary (24), a farmer’s daughter and Patrick (22) a farmer’s son lived in this house.  None of the family could read; all spoke Irish and English.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and four people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house on the property.

No 15:  Patrick Walsh (56), his wife Bridget (54), their sons John (24) and Thomas (20) and their daughters Maggie (22), Mary (18) and Bridget (16) were the occupants of this house.  Patrick was a herd; there was no occupation documented for the children.  The parents could not read; their children could read and write.  Patrick spoke Irish only; his wife and family were bilingual.  The house was 2nd class with three windows to the front and seven people occupied three rooms.  They had one out office that contained a cow house.

No 16:  Thomas Lydon (60) a farmer and his wife Margaret (55) lived here with their two children; Patrick (20) a farmer’s son and Margaret (17) a farmer’s daughter.  The parents could not read; their children could read and write. Thomas and his wife spoke Irish only; Patrick and Margaret spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and the couple and their children occupied two rooms. (Form B2 page 2 Return of Out – Offices and Farm Steadings is not available for the last three houses).

No 17:  Patrick Coyne (32) and his wife Kate (35) were farmers.  Patrick could read and write; Kate could not read; both were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with two windows to the front and the couple had two rooms.

No 18:  John Joyce (58), his wife Bridget (55) daughter Mary (29) and son Michael (27) were resident here.  John was a farmer, Michael a farmer’s son and Mary a farmer’s daughter.  None of the family present could read; all spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and four people occupied two rooms.

No 19:  Kate Jennings (33), her three sons and two daughters were the occupants of this house.  Martin (12) had no occupation listed; John (10) and Michael (8) were scholars, Mary Anne was (6) and Bridget (4) years old.  Kate and her three youngest could not read; Martin and John could read and write.  The house was 3rd class with one window to the front and the mother and her five children occupied one room.  John Joyce was the name of the landholder where the house was situated.

Census 1911:   The census return was taken between the 10th and 11th of April 1911 by the Constable Patrick Henaghan.  Eighty four people lived in the townland; thirty eight males and forty six females; all were Roman Catholic. Two were born in Co. Mayo; one was born in America and the remainder born in Co. Galway.  Farming was their way of life.  As in 1901, nineteen houses were occupied; six were 2nd class and thirteen were 3rd class dwellings; all had perishable roofs that were presumably thatch.

Ten years on, the census was expanded to include the following: Particulars as to Marriage / completed years the present marriage has lasted / children born alive to present marriage and children still living.  It reveals that many families experienced the loss of one or more children.  Overcrowding and lack of facilities must have presented huge struggles. A widow’s details were often recorded but widowers seldom were.

No 1:  Pat Walsh (67) a farmer and his wife Bridget (71) were married for forty one years and they had six children.  Their son John (37) a farmer’s son was married to Bridget (34) for seven years and they had four daughters; Bridget (5) and Mary (4) were scholars; Kate was (2) and the infant Maggie (9) months old.  Michael Henahan (15) a scholar, was a visitor.  John was the only one in this household that could read and write.  Pat spoke Irish only; his wife, the young couple and Michael Henahan (sic) were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and nine people occupied two rooms.  They had three out offices; a cow house, a calf house and a piggery.

No 2:  Richard Joyce (75) a widower was a farmer.  His son Pat (29) a farmer’s son was married to Mary (25) for three years and they had two children; one was still living; infant Mary was (9 months old).  Mary Derrig (12) a scholar born in Co. Mayo, was a visitor.  Richard’s daughter in law Mary and Mary Derrig (sic) could read and write; the others could not read; all were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with one window to the front and five people occupied two rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the property.

No 3:  Michael Coyne (68) a farmer and his wife Margaret (68) were married for forty-six years and they had twelve children; seven were still living.  None of the children were present when the census was recorded.  Michael and Margaret could not read and they spoke Irish only.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and the couple had two rooms.  They had three out buildings on the premises that contained a cow house, a piggery and a fowl house.

No 4:  Thomas Lyden (75) was married to Margaret (67) for forty-three years and they had five children; only their granddaughter Mary Walsh (13) a scholar was in the house with them.  Thomas and Margaret could not read; Mary could read and write; all were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and three people occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the premises.

No 5:  Martin Joyce (Junior) (43) a farmer and his wife Mary (40) were married for nine years and they had four children; three were still living and two were documented.  Mary (8) was a scholar and Ellen was (3) years old.  Martin was the only one that could read and write; the couple were bilingual; the children were not; this may suggest that English was the language of the home.  The house was 3rd class with one window in front and the parents and two children occupied one room.  There were no out buildings on the property.

No 6:  Thomas Joyce (John) (70) was a widower and farming was his livelihood.  Thomas spoke Irish and English but could not read.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and he had two rooms.  There was a cow house and a potato house on the premises.

No 7:  John Joyce (Tom) (70) was married to Bridget (69) for forty nine years and they had three children.  John and Bridget could not read; Bridget spoke Irish only and John was bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with one window in front and the couple had two rooms.  They had a fowl house on the premises.

No 8:  Bridget Joyce (24) was married for five years and she had two children; Michael (4) and Bridget (2).  Bridget could read and write and was bilingual; her children were not.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the mother children occupied three rooms.  There were no out offices on the property.

No 9:  Martin Joyce (Tom) (Senior) (71) and his wife Ellen (69) were married for fifty two years and they had nine children; eight were still living.  Thomas (25) a farmer’s son was a single man and the only one documented.  Grandson William Joyce (10) a scholar, could read and write; the others could not read.  Ellen spoke Irish only; the others spoke Irish and English.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and four people occupied two rooms.  Three out offices contained a cow house, a piggery and a barn.

No 10:  John Walsh (58) a farmer and his wife Margaret (52) were married for 28 years and they had eight children; six were still living.  Thomas (12) and Maggie (10) were scholars.  Their son John (27) and his wife Bridget (27) were married for four years and they had three children; two were still living; Anne (2) and Patrick (3) months old.  John’s sister, Mary Walsh (73) a single woman was also in the house.  John senior, Margaret and Mary could not read; the young couple and the scholars could read and write.  Mary spoke Irish only; the others were bilingual.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and nine people occupied three rooms.  They had four out offices that consisted of a cow house, a calf house, a piggery and a fowl house.

No 11:  Pat Joyce (Tom) (69) was married to Kate (65) for forty years and they had eleven children; eight were still living and four were listed. Martin (22) was a farmer’s son, Kate (19), Winifred (17) and Barbara (15) had no occupation listed.  Pat and Kate could not read; their children could read and write and all spoke Irish and English.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the family of six occupied three rooms.  They had a stable, a cow house and a potato house on the premises.

No 12:  Anne Joyce (59) was married for thirty three years and she had ten children; nine were still living.  Her sons John (27) and Peter (22) were farmer’s sons; Maggie (18) had no occupation listed and Honoria (sic) (15) was a scholar.  Anne and her children could read and write and were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with two windows in front and the family of five occupied two rooms.  They had a stable and a cow house on the property.

No 13:  Michael Sullivan (69) and his wife Margaret (62) were married for forty-one years and they had ten children; four were still living and were recorded here.  Mary (40) and Kate (21) had no occupation recorded; Patrick (36) and Michael (27) were farmer’s sons and all were single at the time.  Patrick and Kate could read and write; the others could not read, Margaret, Mary and Michael Junior spoke Irish only, the others were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with one window in front and six people occupied two rooms.  They had two out buildings that contained a cow house and a piggery.

No 14:  Catherine Joyce (90) a widow was head of this household.  Catherine was married for sixty years and had five children, two were still living.  Her daughter Bridget (57) also a widow was married for three years and had three children; two were still living.  Catherine’s son in law Thomas Joyce (31) a farmer, and granddaughter Julia (26) (born in America) were married for six years and they had a (4) year old son Stephen who was a scholar.  Thomas and Julia could read and write the others could not read; Catherine spoke Irish only; Bridget, Thomas and Julia spoke Irish and English.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and five people occupied three rooms.  Four out offices were comprised of a cow house, a calf house, a piggery and a fowl house.

No 15:  Laurence Carthy (sic) (34) a farmer, was married to Maggie (32) for eight and they had three children; Mary (8), Michael (5) and Martin (2) years old.  Laurence and his wife could read and write and Mary could read.  The parents were bilingual; the children were not and this may indicate that English was the language of the home.  There were three out buildings; a cow house, a piggery and a fowl house.

No 16:  John Sullivan (72) a farmer was a married man; his nephew also called John Sullivan (41) a single man was a farm servant.  Neither could read; both were bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with one window in front and they occupied two rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the property.

No 17:  Patrick Coyne (44) and his wife Kate (56) were married for 21 years and they had no children.  Farming was their occupation. Patrick could read and write; Kate could not read and both spoke Irish and English.  The house was 2nd class with three windows in front and the couple had three rooms.  Two out houses contained a cow house and a piggery.

No 18:  Pat Joyce Senior (73) was married to Bridget (69) for forty two years and they had six children; five were still living.  Pat (32) was a farmer and his son Pat a farmer’s son.  Pat and Bridget could not read and they spoke Irish only; Pat Junior could read and write and was bilingual.  The house was 3rd class with one window to the front and the parents and son occupied three rooms.  They had a cow house and a piggery on the property.

No 19:  John Joyce (Pat) (78) was married to Mary (73) for fifty five years and they had nine children; six were still living.  Their son John (34) and his wife Mary (34) were married for twelve years and had six children; five were still living and four were recorded here.  Michael (11) and Kate (6) were scholars; Maggie was (3) and Bridget (2) years old.  The young couple and their son were the only family members that could read and write.  John senior and Mary senior spoke Irish only; the young parents and their school going children were bilingual.  The house was 2nd class with three windows to the front and eight people occupied three rooms.  They had four out offices that contained a cow house, a piggery, a fowl house and a potato house.

This page was added on 23/10/2020.

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